广告管理

老师信息:桂世河副教授 guishihe@163.com
参考教材:广告管理
参考期刊:中国广告、广告大观、journal of advertising、journal of advertising、international journal of advertising
参考网站:中国营销传播网(emkt.com.cn)
考试信息:
考勤5%:微助教随即签到、
课前表现5%:教材阅读、文献阅读、案例阅读及提问、
课中表现20%:微助教测验10%微助教讨论10%、
课后表现10%:文献阅读、案例阅读、作业互评、微课堂、
结业考试60%:案例分析
作业:把老师讲的内容编辑为图文,再上传到平台之中。

期末考试重点内容

  1. 广告的定义:广告主通过媒介对其提供物进行的营销传播。
  2. 广告的基本特征:广告主、广告媒体、广告信息、广告费用
  3. 广告管理的含义:广告管理是广告主对其广告决策行为进行分析、计划、执行和控制的过程。
  4. 广告管理的实质
    1. 是一种生产管理
    2. 是一种分销管理
    3. 是一种邀约管理
    4. 是一种营销传播管理:7W+1H模式的营销传播管理:who,whom,why,what,when,where,how many,what effect
  5. 广告供给的经济学理论基础
    1. 传统经济学——信息是完全的
    2. 新古典主义经济学——只需价格
    3. 哈佛学派——广告是劝服:企业从消费者的切身利益出发,告诉消费者该品牌商品优于其他品牌商品的独到之处,改变消费者的看法
    4. 芝加哥学派——广告是信息:广告的目的在于传达新产品的信息,使市场产生对某类产品的需求
    5. 新产业组织学派——广告是补偿
  6. 广告供给的心理学理论基础
    1. 纯暴露理论:只要广告暴露让消费者接触到,就足以使消费者对新异物体产生积极的态度。(低认知卷入的理论模式中有两个很重要的基本理论:纯暴露理论和低卷入学习模式,即只要将广告暴露给受众,在受众对广告内容进行信息加工和认知之前,受众对于广告产品的熟悉感和偏好就已经形成了)
    2. 归类评价模式:广告的效果主要要看消费者把产品进行何种归类。广告的作用则在于促使消费者把产品作合适的归类。
    3. 精细化加工可能性模型:当消费者对说服信息的精细加工可能性高时,基于中心化路径的说服方法更为有效;当精细加工可能性低时,基于外围型路径的说服方法更为有效。消费者是否通过中枢路径对广告进行精细的加工取决于其MAO 水平(动机-能力-机会)
  7. 广告供给的传播学理论基础:
    1. 议程设置理论:搜寻品少广告、体验品广告效益较高
  8. 广告目标是什么?(*2)指广告主为最终实现营销目的,而希望在一定时期内与目标受众的沟通获得阶段性的预期效果。
    1. 常见的广告目标:销售上的效果;行为上的效果(如回信);传播上的效果
    2. 品牌广告/效果广告:广告涉及属性、利益和价值(信息流广告追求品效合一)
  9. 广告目标模型:(*2)
    1. 单向层级模型:
      1. AIDA模型:引起注意→诱发兴趣→刺激欲望→促成购买
      2. EAMAP模型:广告曝光→引起注意→产生记忆→形成态度→促成购买
      3. 广告传播四阶段理论:知晓→了解→信服→行动
      4. AARRR模型——一种营销漏斗转化模型:用户获取→用户激活→用户留存→获取收入→用户传播
    2. 反馈与跨越模式:ACALTA模型:即知名—理解—态度—认可—试用—采用(从单向过程来看,考虑到消费者的反应模型,过程之间是可跳跃的,看到了消费者的多样性(包括了理性决策和感性决策))
    3. 多面模式:总体上看一则广告对不同的消费者产生了不同的效果:感知、认知、情感、联系、行为、劝服。
    4. 互动模式:
      1. AISAS模型:注意-兴趣-搜索-行动-分享(强调品牌商家与用户之间的关系开始互动,是双向转化漏斗,强调了消费者主动行为(搜索和分享)的重要性)
      2. SICAS模型:互相感知-产生兴趣/形成互动-建立连接-促成行动-扩散分享
  10. 广告目标导向
    1. 竞争
    2. 消费者:满足消费者
    3. 价值链:带动彼此销售
    4. 社会公众:满足社会偏好、认知、价值观,产生传播
    5. 整合营销传播:独立的营销视为整体,协同效应
  11. 确定广告目标的原则
    1. 协调性
    2. 可行性
    3. 可量化
    4. 可测量
    5. 公益性
  12. 广告受众的定义:广告信息的接触者
  13. 整合营销传播视角下的广告受众:利益相关者
  14. 数字广告受众行为趋向(*5)
    1. 受众身份:去消费者化
      1. 原因:数字赋权(结构赋能、心理赋能、资源赋能)
      2. 表现:投资人、渠道商、种草者
    2. 受众性格:任性化
      1. 表现:随时随地满足个性化
      2. 原因:时空变迁:虚拟空间须臾化、时间碎片化
      3. 如何满足任性化:场景广告(当场感知决定广告命运)
    3. 信息需求:内容化
      1. 内容的含义:媒介中广告以外的信息
      2. 原因:信息对称/对商业化广告抵触,而内容式广告是隐形的
    4. 人际交往:关系弱化
  15. 广告目标受众选择的原则:
    1. 种草性
    2. 经济性
    3. 可接近性
    4. 分享性
    5. 再创性
    6. 矩阵性
  16. 创新扩散论:创新的扩散,总是一开始比较慢,当采用者达到一定数量(即“临界数量”)后,创新的过程突然加快。对于初期的革新者受众投放窄告,成功达到出圈的效果,再由这些初期受众分享给其他受众,实现裂变效果。
  17. 两级传播论:大众传播-意见领袖-一般受众
    1. 决定意见领袖影响力的因素:信源、知识面、责任感、人际交往、社会地位
    2. 意见领袖中介作用:加工与解释、扩散与传播、支配与引导、协调或干扰
    3. KOC小群效应:“三近一反”原则,即“地域近”“年龄近”“兴趣近”,以及“协作有冲突”的关系(例如两性关系或者甲方乙方)
  18. 邓巴数定律:人际关系上限是150,其中20%是强关系、80%是弱关系
    1. 强弱关系维度:互动频率、情感力量、亲密程度和互利互惠
    2. 强关系:较强同质性
    3. 弱关系:个体间具备强烈异质性。满足受众既想徜徉于代表个体间具备强烈异质性。满足受众既想徜徉于精神世界,又希望能和更广大外部世界保持连接的心理需求(自我认同需求、情感宣泄需求、社交关系需求和娱乐消遣需求)
  19. 受众旅程:一个人为了达到一个目标所经历过程的可视化表示,是用户从产品的第一次交互到最后一次交互的过程。经过深入研究和分析的用户旅程能够详细了解到用户在产品旅程中的体验,理解和解决客户需求和痛点,一旦确定了这些要点,就可以掌握产品存在的问题和改进的机会。
  20. 广告的媒介决策(*2)
    1. 广告媒介的时空偏向决策
      1. 偏向时间的媒介有助于权威树立和森严社会等级体制确立
      2. 偏向空间的媒介有利于地域或空间扩张
    2. 广告媒介的感官偏向决策:媒介是人的延申;媒介即讯息;冷/热媒介
    3. 媒介的社交偏向决策:强关系、弱关系
  21. 新媒介的质变之新决策:人本张扬;主体间性(去中心化、不受控)、人的本质化(丰富社会关系)
  22. 什么是广告信息?(*4)
    1. 直接商品信息:关于商品特征的信息
    2. 间接商品信息:商品特征之外的信息
  23. 广告信息内容特征:内容的关注特征和分享特征对说服消费者认知线上产品的态度有正向显著影响,关注特征对分享特征也存在正向显著影响。关注特征从时事性、娱乐性和丰富性三个维度衡量,分享特征从相关性、质量性和选择性三个维度衡量。
  24. 广告主题:是广告的中心思想,是广告为达到某项目的所要说明和所要传播的基本观念。
  25. 广告主题决策原则:
    1. 完整统一
    2. 显著
    3. 易懂
    4. 刺激
    5. 集中稳定
    6. 协调
    7. 独特
  26. 广告主题决策的方法:方法-目的链(*2)
    1. 消费者理解产品
    2. 解释水平理论
    3. 科学方法
    4. 决策思路
  27. 广告价格信息的框架效应:
    1. 对高价产品,人们更喜欢金额优惠;而对低价产品,以折扣率方式表示降价使消费者觉得更省钱。
    2. 在金额折扣来说, 消费者对实用型产品的实际价格感知更低;对百分比折扣来说,消费者对享乐型产品的实际价格感知更低。
    3. 知名度高、折扣幅度大时,百分比能引起更高的感知节省与冲动购买;知名度低、折扣幅度大时,金额能引起更高的感知节省与冲动购买。在较大的降价幅度下,金额比百分比能产生更高的感知节省;在适当降价幅度下,两种价格折扣形式对消费者感知节省无影响。
  28. 具身认知与广告信息决策
  29. 广告的逆火效应
  30. 广告代言人的含义:广告代言人是通过在广告中进行陈述或表现行为来支持广告或广告声明中的人、物或组织。
  31. 广告代言人的作用机理:
    1. 特质论:信源可信度模型(专业性和可靠性);信源吸引力模型(相似性、熟悉性和喜好性)
    2. 情景论:一致性假说((名人与商品档次的一致性,名人性别与商品类型的一致性等)
    3. 符号论:意义迁移模型(名人所具有的象征意义,是特定的社会文化背景赋予名人的,使名人具有一定的形象)
    4. 平衡理论:当涉及第三者时,两个人之间关系可能呈现出的状态以及可能发生的变化。
  32. 代言人数量决策
    1. 品牌单人代言使消费者的品牌态度更高。一位(vs.多位)品牌代言人的自我—品牌联结更紧密,进而促进品牌态度
    2. 仅局限于象征型产品, 而对于非身份象征型产品, 品牌单人代言(vs.品牌多人代言)对品牌态度无显著差异
    3. 多位品牌代言人为一个团体时, 品牌代言人数效应将被逆转, 即品牌多人代言(vs.品牌单人代言)对品牌态度的影响更高。
  33. 广告时序策略
    1. 预告策略
    2. 同时策略
    3. 延后策略
  34. 广告的时长决策
    1. 广告总时长假设理论
  35. 广告的总时长与多样性决策
  36. 广告时长的松紧决策
  37. 广告的时段决策
  38. 广告的时间精度决策
  39. 广告的空间策略
  40. 广告的覆盖面策略
  41. 广告的空间社会密度决策:增加将导致空间中每人可获得的空间减少,从而导致更多的人际交往、更多的社会结构、更多的社会干预以及更多的来自社会的威胁。此时个体将更关心社会问题,更少攻击性。高社会密度会增加人们的信息分享行为,更欲参与口碑。其机理是:随者环境变得密集,环境中的每个人更感到控制感的缺失,而信息分享能够存储个人控制感。
  42. 广告场景化决策:
    1. 原因:虚拟空间须臾化、时间碎片化、时间距离缩短
    2. 表现:随时随地随性
    3. 决策:当场感知决定广告命运、实时化、娱乐化、游戏化
  43. 快闪
  44. 广告强度与内容免费数量的优化决策
  45. 购买欲望导向下的信息密度决策
  46. 广告弹性决策
  47. 广告强度决策
    1. 有重复、显著等维度
    2. 免费内容多付费感知价值低、少了无法降低对网站内容品质感知的不确定性;广告强度过高导致大量顾客流失、过低不愿升级
  48. 广告重复决策
    1. 低限主义
    2. 重复主义
    3. 情境主义
  49. 广告信息(*6)
    1. 信息结构(*2)
    2. 信息内容(*3):理性诉求、关注特征、分享特征
  50. 广告理性与感性诉求决策
    1. 以理性诉求的方式,充分说明商品的特点和好处,以促使消费者指名购买
    2. 以情感诉求的方式来打动消费者指名购买。这类广告主要是通过广告的暗示来启迪人们的潜意识,达到激发购买行动的目的。
  51. USP 理论( Unique Selling Proposition ):一则广告必须向消费者明确陈述一个消费主张;这主张必须是独特的,或者是其他同类产品宣传不曾提出或表现过的;这主张必须对消费者具有强大的吸引力和打动力。
  52. “戏剧性”理论:在创意广告时代,椰树牌椰汁的广告在一众竞品中凭借土味创意和低俗戏剧性脱颖而出。
  53. CIS 理论:CIS 强调从企业经营理念到精神文化,从员工行为到企业活动,从视觉识别的基本要素到所有应用要素,建构起具有高度同一性、独特性、可识别性的企业形象识别系统,树立起高度统一而极富个性的企业形象,并通过对内对外的一致传播,造成企业内部的一致认同,以及消费者的全面认同,从而提升企业的市场地位,增进企业的经营业绩。
  54. 品牌营销理论:指企业通过利用消费者对产品的需求,然后用产品的质量、文化以及独特性的宣传来创造一个牌子在用户心中的价值认可,最终形成品牌效益的营销策略和过程。品牌营销首要包含品牌辨认、品牌定位、品牌形象的刻画和品牌营销等。
  55. 抗拒心理、信息加工:抗拒心理是指自由受到威胁时或者失去时的一种重建机制,抗拒心理包括四个基本要素:自由、威胁自由、抗拒和恢复自由。精细加工可能型模型中指出当我们处在低介入度时,我们多采取边缘路径处理信息,即激活的是我们的情感感知部分。而在高介入度时大多采取中心路径,倾向于分析产品的性能,这时我们处理认知性信息的能力被激发

广告管理与决策

  1. 消费剧场理论:消费者是站在舞台上的表演者,身边的人是台下的观众,消费者通过对物的消费彰显个人的价值和形象。而广告就是为消费者创造观众,比如耐克没有人知道是名牌就对一些消费者失去了意义。
  2. 广告分为信息类和劝服类,第三种观点认为广告是一种补偿,可以给已经购买的人一种威望感。
  3. 构成完整广告的四个要素
    1. 广告主
    2. 广告媒体
    3. 广告信息
      不管是哪种类型的广告信息,要想实现有效传播必须体现两个要求:一是说服性,即劝诱受众接受某一特定的产品或观念;二是准确性,即广告必须真实全面反映某一广告信息。这两个要求是相辅相成的,广告的目的在千说服,为实现这一目的,要求所提供的广告信息必须是准确的。
    4. 广告费用
    5. (广告对象,也就是广告的受众)
  4. 广告与宣传、新闻和公共关系p6
  5. 老师对广告的定义:广告主通过媒介对其提供物进行的营销传播
  6. 美国人路易斯在1898 年提出了AIDA 法则,认为一则广告要引人注目并取得预期效果,在广告程序中必须达到引起注意(Attention) 、产生兴趣(Interest) 、培养欲望(Desire)和促成行动(Action) 这样一个逐级实现的过程。在AIDA 基础上,后来又加进了记忆(Memory) 的因素,成了AIDMA 。这种对广告作用于视听者心理历程的描述带有明显的缺陷,它认为人是可被操纵的一个被动反应的生物。
    现代广告学逐步形成了以广告策划为主体,以创意为中心,以科学和艺术为基础,以系统科学为方法,融合各门学科为一体的现代学科体系。
  7. 广告管理的范围
  8. 广告策划具有以下几个特点:
    1. 现代广告策划具有明确的目的性
    2. 现代广告策划具有严谨的科学性
    3. 现代广告策划还具有灵活性
  9. 广告在企业经营战略中的地位及主要活动内容
  10. 广告集群:几家厂商共同承包广告媒介,并共同使用。比如小微企业一起承包央视一定时间段的广告,然后每一家播一段时间。
  11. 广告理论发展脉络:
    1. 被遗忘的英国广告理论:单一作品形式的广告理论初步形成于1863年的英国:出版《为何、何时、何地做广告》
    2. 被遗忘的美国学院派广告理论:整体运动形式的广告理论初步形成于1888年的美国:出版《广告与印刷》
    3. 被误解的IMC理论:整合营销传播形式的广告理论初步形成于20世纪90年代的美国
  12. 广告策划的程序:
  13. 广告计划的主要内容p24
  14. 广告目标从总体上有销售、行为及传播效果三种基本类型
  15. 广告目标及测量:
    1. 广告传播四阶段理论(DAGMAR:Defining Advertising Cost for Measured Advertising Results)
      1. 知晓:消费者首先一定要知道某种品牌或某个企业的存在。
      2. 了解:消费者一定要了解这个产品是什么,能给他带来什么利益。
      3. 信服:消费者一定要达到某一心理倾向,对这种产品建立信心。
      4. 行动:最后消费者一定要采取购买行动。
    2. 从知名到行动的发展模式:是DACMAR 法的细化,在他们看来,广告被认为是一种必须把人们推上一系列阶段的力量。

广告信息战略

  1. 广告对消费者可能发挥的积极作用:
    1. 唤起消费者潜在需要,产生购买愿望,进而激发起购买动机。
    2. 提供有关商品信息,进一步指向具体的物品或劳务。
    3. 确认广告的商标,以便选择特定的商标产品。
  2. 广告对消费者消费行为过程的客观作用,相应地决定了广告心理的基本任务:
    1. 广告如何有效地说服消费者购买;
    2. 广告如何让消费者快速、准确地接受和记住特定的商品信息。
  3. 权力理论:第四权力、权力从结构变量发展为心里变量——权力感
  4. 议程设置理论:媒体很难让人怎么想,但是可以使人想什么
  5. 第三人效果理论:人们倾向于高估大众媒介对他人的认知和行为的影响
  6. 受众商品理论:媒体的使命其实是将受众集合并打包以便出售
  7. 知觉的特点
    1. 知觉的选择性。消费者对一些商品或商品的某个属性知觉,而不对另一些商品及某个属性知觉
      1. 知觉的超负荷。外来商品信息超出消费者在正常情况下所能接受的能力时,一部分刺激就会受到心理上的排斥。
      2. 选择的感受性。消费者对自己认为有价值的或有兴趣的对象表现出较高的感受性。
      3. 知觉防御。消费者表现出对恐惧或感到威胁的刺激倾向于回避、阻滞或反应缓慢。
    2. 知觉的整体性。人们会把商品信息各个部分有机地结合在一起,比如如果改变品牌名可能就会带来认知障碍。
    3. 知觉的解释性。当离散的感觉信息被组成一个整体的模式之后,将该模式同过去的经验作比较,进而推得意义
  8. "注意一兴趣-欲望-行动,即AIDA。后来加进了记忆,称为AIDMA。诚然,这个程序存在着把消费者视为被动的反应生物倾向,而受到批评。如果把引起注意作为广告的第一目的的话,将不可避免地给广告实践带来危害。例如,为了追求广告的吸引力,色情手法被滥用于与之无关的产品广告中。
  9. 刺激因素与注意的关系及其广告策略
    1. 大小与强度。增大尺寸可以达到加强刺激强度的目的。但是,除目标刺激以外,还受背景刺激的影响。与此紧密联系,对比因素是很有意义的。
    2. 新奇。出乎意外的、不平常的刺激特性,都会有不同程度的新奇性。这意味着创新对广告的注意是具有基本意义的。创新的作用不仅仅在于捕捉消费者的注意力,而且还能引起注意力对广告信息的进一步加工。利用好奇心所制作的广告是极容易引起注意的。
    3. 刺激物的动与变化。动的或变化着的物体是容易引起注意的。
    4. 颜色。黑色与单色结合的广告比黑白广告的读者人数高出1% ,而四色广告比黑白广告则高出54%
    5. 版面位置。在观看中,第一眼所看到的字母,最多集中在左方,然后是上方,最少是右方。
    6. 形状。
  10. 现代认知心理学把记忆系统看成是由感觉记忆、短时记忆和长时记忆所组成的

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